Journal of Pan African Studies. Nevertheless, he succeeded in rebuilding much of the countryside and in raising production levels. Many of the whites on Saint Dominigue began to support an independence movement that began when France imposed steep tariffs on the items imported into the colony. The remaining French settlers were forced to leave the island. The runaway slaves were called maroons; they had retreated deep into the mountains of Saint Dominigue and lived off subsistence farming. The crash was apparently the result of pilot error and equipment malfunction.